Analysis By Default

November 25, 2015

Analysis By Default

Many people that starts using radare2 complain about having a different workflow than other similar tools like IDA or Hopper.

Probably the most annoying part for them is that it doesn’t run the analysis at startup. And this is the reason why I’m writing this blog post right now : to avoid having to explain why, again and again :)

To begin with, r2 is a pretty broad tool. It didn’t even started as a disassembler in mind, so for example, code analysis doesn’t makes sense to be done when you load a hard disk image or a memory dump for example. But some others will complain that we can just run the analysis when the file format is known to contain code.

But then, several other reasons appear in the scene. Let’s enumerate them:

Slow process

Code analysis is not a quick operation, and not even predictable or taking a linear time to be processed. This makes starting times pretty heavy, compared to just loading the headers and strings information like it’s done by default.

People that are used to IDA or Hopper just load the binary, go out to make a coffee and then when the analysis is done, they start doing the manual analysis to understand what the program is doing. It’s true that those tools perform the analysis in background, and the GUI is not blocked. But this takes a lot of CPU time, and r2 aims to run in many more platforms than just high-end desktop computers, for example a mazda car

Radare2 can also load the binary information in background, and perform there’s some initial work to do code analysis in async and threaded mode, but this is just not an excuse for running a heavy operation by default on start.

If speed really matters for your task, and you have already a script that puts all the information you need on top of the binary you can just run r2 -n to avoid parsing the file headers and strings, loading the binary as a plain raw dump, without virtual mappings or flags at all.


In the world of static code analysis tools, perfection doesn’t exist. This is somehow a pretty complex topic that depends on the target architecture, file format, …

In our case. radare2 is able to load many more file formats than any other tool in the market and as long as fuzzing is part of our development model, we are able to load pretty messed up files in a flawless way, while others are simply crashing. This turns out to create some side effects in the code analysis, by forcing it to walk into strange and invalid code paths when it is never going to be executed in a real environment.

Also, r2 has a single analysis engine (which can be changed or extended by plugins), this contrasts with other tools that just have a specific dedicated engine for each architecture, which is probably better for very specific use cases, but probably not good when you are out of the scope of their supposed use cases.

Also, bear in mind that switch tables are not always easy to resolve statically, most tools just expect those constructions to be standard building blocks spitted by compilers, but it can be different. Many times, you will always need some manual interaction with the tool to get full and proper analysis of our binary.


As described in the previous section, analysis is not an exact science, so it needs some manual tuning in order to optimize the results depending on the target. Yeah, I know, malware is probably one of the main sources that requires this kind of options to be defined.

In r2, we have 26 different anal. configuration variables that can be used to change the behaviour of the analysis engine. Probably the most interesting ones are the following:

  • anal.afterjmp
  • anal.depth
  • anal.eobjmp
  • anal.esil
  • anal.hasnext
  • anal.nopskip

See the e??anal. command to get some detailed descriptions for them.

There’s even two more handy configuration variables (anal.from and that allows you to restrict the boundaries of the analysis. This way you can for example focus on analyzing only the application code in a statically compiled binary by excluding the library code, which is usually at the end of the program, this can be easily detected by manually reading the disassembly.


Running the analysis in radare2, is not just a single step or action. We have many different commands that perform different kind of analysis and let you identify new functions and references in faster or funky ways, which are handier in different situations. Let’s just enumerate some of them:

  • Find functions by prelude instructions (aap)
  • Identify functions by following calls (aac)
  • Detect jump tables and pointers to code section (/V)
  • Analyze opcode absolute and relative references (aar)
  • Find code/data/string references to a specific address (/r)
  • Emulate code to identify new pointer references (aae)
  • Use binary header information to find public functions (aas)
  • Assume functions are consecutive (aat)

radare2 is not a click-and-run program, it’s a set of orthogonal tools and commands that allows you to understand, analyze, manipulate and play with a large list of binary types. And as long as every single point in the above list will take some time, you probably do not want to run them all in a shot, also, the execution order will alter the results. Only experience and understanding will give you control on what you are doing.

Delegated Analysis

Another good point towards this model relays on the fact that r2 can be easily sandboxed or run in many different environments. This allows to distribute the analysis into different environments, which are in a clean state and cannot leak any information from your system or other binaries analyzed in case of loading a binary that exploits some kind of vulnerability.

As said in other points. The entire analysis information can be serialized in textual form, which can be passed between different machines or centralized in a database like bjoern, for a deeper understanding of the program.

Anyway, if you are using r2 from git, you can always build with ASAN, and other compiler protections that are not viable options on precompiled closed source alternatives that will not be able to protect you in those situations.

Crash reports in r2land are taking very little time to be fixed, and including fuzzing in the development process, as well as using clang-analyzer, coverity and run the entire testsuite with valgrind and ASAN gives you some more reliability in the code you are going to run. (yes, I don’t even trust system libmagic, libc’s regex library or so, that’s why r2 comes with our own specific versions of them).

Use Cases

Not every time you load a binary you need or want an entire code analysis of it. Let’s say, for example, that you have already performed a previous analysis and you have a project database stored somewhere and you just want to load it into this binary.

Radare2 allows you to do this, but not only this, because, as long as projects are text files, you can rebase all the symbols in case the binary shifted the symbols to a new address, etc…

Also, it supports signatures, so you can just find function entrypoints by loading a signatures files which can be generated by radare2 or IDA (FLIRT). In this case you will probably not need to analyze the entire binary to understand what it is doing.

If you are going to do some automated process in a binary as fast as possible, you’d like to load only parts of the binary you’re interested in, and do only the steps you want to perform your actions, nothing else.

In other words: 90% of the time you are going to analyze a binary, it’s to find references to some imports or strings, read the code of the function, maybe analyze 2 or 3 functions and go away. You don’t need full code analysis for forensics, or exploiting, or binary patching, and for reverse engineering, you’ll probably focus on one or two specific problems which doesn’t require a complete program analysis, neither for extracting information of a binary.

The only reasons for doing a full code analysis are similar to the ones for decompilation, which is to recover lost source code, transpile the program to another architecture or operating system, rebasing it, etc. I would say that those cases are less than 10% of what most people need.

Final Words

If you are used to this old-fashioned, lazy workflow, you will probably not switch to radare2 as your main tool.

Worst care, you always just load r2 with the -A flag to get some default analysis done at start time, or just echo aa > ~/.config/radare2/radare2rc. But again, this will probably be a loss of time if you are an experienced reverse engineer.

We are not closing the door to perform a full analysis of the binary, but I just think that it’s something that shouldn’t be done by default at startup time.

We enforce users to think about their workflows in order to better understand the problem they are facing and solve it in an optimal way, saving cpu, memory and why not: cats.

Have phun!